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Tuesday, 26 February 2019



    Hippocrates of Kos (460-375 BC) attributed a condition comparable to ADHD to an "overbalance of fire and water".


    1775 Dr Melchior Adam Weikard of Bruckenau discussed 'inattentive people who 'know a little bit of all but nothing of the whole'.


    1798 Sir Alexander Crichton  (Westminster Hospital) described a mental state much like an inattentive subtype of ADHD.


    1845 Dr. Heinrich Hoffman of Frankfurt coined the term Hyperkinetic Syndrome for 'naughty restless children growing still more rude and wild'.



    1902  Sir George Still of King's College Hospital, London documented cases of impulsive behaviour, and called the condition  Defect of Moral Control.


    1922 ADHD-like symptoms were diagnosed as Minimal Brain Damage by the eugenicist Dr. Alfred Tredgold of Royal Surrey County Hospital. (The terms Minimal Brain Dysfunction and Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood were later used for this condition)


    1931  Drs. E.A. Bond and K.E. Appel of the Pennsylvania Hospital discussed the treatment of ADHD-like symptoms diagnosed since the 1920s as Post-Encephalitic Behaviour Disorder


    1937 Children with ADHD-like symptoms were treated with stimulant Benzedrine by Dr. Charles Bradley of Babies Hospital, New York.


                                                    Image from

    1961  Ritalin gained FDA approval for treating  hyperactive children.  During 1960s, stimulants were increasingly used to treat such hyperactivity.

                                                            Image from

    1970s. More symptoms recognized, including impulsiveness (verbal, cognitive, or motor), lack of focus, and daydreaming.


    1980 Name Attention Deficit Disorder invented by American Psychiatric Association.

    1987  Name in USA revised to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder.



1996 Adderall was approved to treat ADHD


    1998 American Medical Association stated that ADHD was one of the most researched "disorders"



The Massachussetts Institute of Technology (Dr. Joseph Biederman) and Columbia University (Dr. Jeffrey Lieberman) are regarded by the psychiatry profession as leading centres for research into the diagnosis and treatment of ADD as a supposed medical condition,

Many successful people of the past and present have been thought to be Attention Deficit and neurodiverse, including Albert Einstein, John F.Kennedy, Walt Disney, and many entertainers and athletes,





 Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD for short, is not really a disorder, but rather a point on the human scale . It is a persistent pattern of inattention and impulsivity that affects daily life and individual development. Children and adults with ADD often have difficulties with their brain's ability to begin an activity, organise itself, and manage tasks, and with working memory. Those of us who are also hyperactive are said to be experiencing ADHD or Attention Dficit Hyperactive Disorder,  The definitions are slightly different in the United States. Other forms of neurodiversity include autism, dyspraxia, dyslexia, dyscalculia, and Tourette's syndrome, and these sometimes overlap with ADD

                                                                     TO BE CONTINUED




Saturday, 16 February 2019

My Hoskyns-Abrahall and Hoskyns Lineage (Burke's Peerage)

John Hoskyns M.P. (1566-1638)

Contemporary of Ben Johnson and Sir Walter Raleigh. Lived a highly dramatic life

An engraving of the Trusty Servant, from a 1579 painting by John Hoskins

Image result for baron hoskyns heraldic coat of arms

John Hoskyns' son Sir Bennett assumed the Hoskyns Baronetcy


Consider the end: live so that your life will be approved after your death


Consider the consequences of your actions

         Jane Hoskyns Abrahall Bryant was my (Thomas Hoskyns Leonard's) great great grandmother, and Philip Hoskyns Bryant was my great grandfather

                                  MY FAMILY ANCESTRY    (includes mistake, I am not obviously descended
                                  from Abrahalls)


                                JANE HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL

                                 FATHER:, JOHN CHARLES

                                 Rev. John Charles Hoskyns Abrahall, my great great grandfather

                                 M.A. Wadham College Oxford

                                 Headmaster of King Edward's School, Bruton, Somerset (1826-1864)
                                 A Fine Scholar and Severe Disciplinarian.
                                 Hoskyns-Abrahall Tower overlooks the school campus.

                                 History of Bruton

                                 JOHN HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL

                                 FATHER: JOHN

                                 FATHER: JOHN

 Rev John Hoskyns-Abrahall. His name was legally changed to Hoskyns-Abrahall under the terms of the will of his cousin Mary Abrahall. He was therefore the first Hoskyns-Abrahall.

                                 SIR JOHN HOSKYNS, Second Baronet

                                 SIR BENNET HOSKYNS First Baronet

                                 JOHN HOSKYNS M.P.

                                 FATHER: JOHN

                          About the Hoskyns Baronets

                              Sir Bennett Hoskyns


                              Sir John Hoskyns, President of Royal Society


                                                       ABRAHALLS AND HOSKYNS-ABRAHALLS

                                                                   Inglestone House

John Abrahall (c.1570-1640) of Ingestone House died without issue, and left his estate to his half-brother, Gilbert Abrahall (b. c.1576), who is curiously invisible in the records. He died between 1640 and 1654, leaving an only son, John Abrahall (d. 1679), who was a major in the Royalist army during the Civil War. He in turn was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, John Abrahall (d. 1703) and grandson Markey Abrahall (1684-1716), one or other of whom probably laid out the formal garden at Ingestone of which some traces remain. Markey, who was High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1705, died unmarried at the age of 32, and left the estate to his two sisters as co-heirs. The elder sister, Mary (1682-1718), the wife of Gilbert Abrahall (1670-1723) of Ross-on-Wye, gained possession of a moiety which included Ingestone House, but of their children only one daughter survived them, and she died in 1725. Mary had left a complex and rather confused will, under which her share of the Ingestone estate passed, after her daughter's death, to her sister Benedicta (1683-1742), whose second husband was John Abrahall (d. 1734) of Cradock (Herefs). However in 1754 the Rev. John Hoskyns, rector of Peterstow (Herefs), who had been named in Mary's will as the ultimate remainder man, was successful in a legal case against Benedicta's heirs which turned on the interpretation of the (possibly not very well drafted) will, and he obtained possession of Ingestone House and the associated lands. Hoskyns' connection to the Abrahalls was remarkably distant: his grandfather, Sir Bennet Hoskyns (d. 1680), 1st bt., had married the widow of John Abrahall (b. 1622), son of Paul Abrahall (c.1574-1654) of Eaton Tregoze, whose brother Gilbert (b. c.1576) had been Mary Abrahall's great-grandfather. Despite this distant connection, however, he was obliged by the terms of Mary's will to take the name Abrahall.

The Rev. John Hoskyns-Abrahall (1692-1765), as he became, was succeeded at Ingestone by his two elder sons in turn, and they also were obliged to take the name Abrahall. James Hoskyns-Abrahall (1728-86) may have lived at Ingestone, but his brother and successor, the Rev. John Hoskyns-Abrahall (1729-1805), who was rector of Compton Martin in Somerset, did not, and it was probably at this time that the ageing Jacobean house slipped into tenant occupation and began to deteriorate. John was succeeded by his eldest son, the Rev. John Hoskyns-Abrahall (1773-1840), who held a succession of curacies in Somerset and was also non-resident. He sold the estate in 1826 to Alexander Baring, later 1st Baron Ashburton, who took down the old house and replaced it with the present smaller and more informal house, which was perhaps better suited to the needs of his tenants.

CONCLUSION: I am not, after all, descended from the Abrahalls in any direct way. Alas,no hedgehog heraldic motif, unless any Hoskyns-Abrahalls subsequently incorporated this into their coat-of-arms


                           UPDATE 9th June 2019   But so it was!!!!

A LIFETIME OF PICTURES Thomas Hoskyns Leonard

In preparation for a film documentary on Attention Deficit Disorder produced by Martin Hocevar


                                     Tom's Ancestor, Serjeant John Hoskins, M.P. and Poet (1566-1638).

                                      Tom's great-grandfather (left) and great-great-grandmother (right)

Philip Hoskyns Bryant with his sister Florence and his mother Jane Hoskyns Abrahall Bryant (wife of the Squire of Peter Tavy, the Rev. Dr. Francis J. Bryant)
outside the rectory of St Peter's Church, Peter Tavy in 1907.  Ref. 1004/9 Plymouth City archives.  Discovered on the Internet by Tom's older daughter in 2004.

Tom's great grandmother Prothesa Roberts 

Tom's grandmother Ethel May Leonard

                                             Tom's grandfather Emmanuel Leonard (on right)

                                                 Tom's parents Rhona and Cecil Leonard

Tom (left), his brother and three cousins

Tom (right) with his brother


Tom (right) with his brother and mother


                                                          Tom in the back row, fifth from left


Tom aged 19

Tom (right) with his brother and sister-in-law

Tom aged 27

Tom aged 38


Tom aged 39

Tom with father

Tom still aged 39




Tom aged 44 with father

Tom, aged 45, first on left

Tom, aged 50 on left

Tom, inaugural lecture, University of Edinburgh, 1996 

Tom on left

70th Birthday Celebrations

71st birthday cake

Early Morning Blues