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Sunday, 15 May 2016



                                                       EDWARD THE FOURTH (Wiki)


Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470,[1][2] and again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England.[3] The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York,[4] 7thEarl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

                                                                  The White Queen

An extremely capable and daring military commander, Edward crushed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories; he was never defeated on the field of battle. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks – usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI of France – Edward was a popular and very able king. While he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death.
Domestically, Edward's reign saw the restoration of law and order in England (indeed, his royal motto was modus et ordo, or "method and order"). The latter days of Henry VI's government had been marked by a general breakdown in law and order, as well as a sizeable increase in both piracy and banditry. Interestingly, Edward was also a shrewd and successful businessman and merchant, heavily investing in several corporations within the City of London. He also made the duchy of Lancaster property of the crown, which it still is today. During the reign of Henry there had been corruption in the exchequer. Edward made his household gain more control over finances and even investigated old records to see payments had been made. Documents of the exchequer show him sending letters threatening officials if they did not pay money. His properties earned large amounts of money for the crown.
                                                        From  ENGLISH MONARCHS


                                                           BBC HISTORY



                                                 TIMELINE OF HOUSE OF YORK

The House of York 1461 -1470 1471 -1485
  • King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483
  • King Edward V 1483 - 1483
  • King Richard III 1483 - 1485

Edward 4King Edward IV 
1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483
  • Age 18-40
  • Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
  • Born: 28 April 1442 at Rouen, Normandy, France
  • Parents: Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville
  • Ascended to the throne: 4 March 1461 aged 18 years
  • Crowned: 28 June 1461 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Elizabeth, Daughter of Richard Woodville (English)
  • Children: Three sons including Edward V and Richard Duke of York (the Princes in the Tower), Seven daughters and four illegitimate children
  • Died: 9 April 1483
  • Buried at: Windsor
  • Reigned for: 21 years. Deposed 3 October 1470, Restored 21 May 1471
    Succeeded by: his son Edward V
Edward IV was twice king of England, winning the struggle against the Lancastrians to establish the House of York on the English throne.
Edward defeated the Lancastrians in a series of battles, culminating in the Battle of Towton in 1461. With the Lancastrian king, Henry VI, overthrown, Edward was crowned Edward IV.
1470 - 71 Henry VI briefly restored as king
1471 - Edward is restored to the throne and with his wife Elizabeth Woodville produce their first of 10 children and heir to the Yorkist throne also a Prince Edward.
During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
Edward 5King Edward V 1483 - 1483
  • Age 12
  • Born: 4 November 1470 at the Sactuary, Westminster Abbey
  • Parents: Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville
  • Ascended to the throne: 9 April 1483 aged 12 years
  • Crowned: Not crowned
  • Married: Never Married
  • Children: None
  • Deposed: 25 June 1483
  • Died: 3 September 1483 at Tower of London (murdered), aged 12 years
  • Buried at: Tower of London
  • Succeeded by: his uncle Richard III
King of England 1483
Elder son of Edward IV. He was deposed two months and 17 days after his accession in favour of his uncle (Richard III), and is traditionally believed to have been murdered (with his brother) in the Tower of London on Richard's orders.
Tower of London
Tower of London
Richard 3King Richard III 1483 - 1485
    • Age 31-33
    • Younger brother of Edward IV
    • Born: 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire
    • Parents: Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville
    • Ascended to the throne: 25 June 1483 aged 30 years
    • Crowned: 6 July 1483 at Westminster Abbey
    • Married: Anne Neville, widow of Edward, Prince of Wales and daughter of Earl of Warwick
    • Children: One son, plus several illegitimate children before his marriage
    • Died: 22 August 1485 at Battle of Bosworth, Leicestershire, aged 32 years
    • Buried at: Leicester
    • Succeeded by: his distant cousin Henry VII
King of England from 1483
Prime suspect to the suspected murders of the two princes, Edward and Richard.
The Princes in the Tower
The two princes, Edward and Richard were locked up in the Tower of London by Richard. The elder prince was in fact the 12 year old King Edward VI who Richard had kidnapped on his way to London to be crowned King. The other prince was his younger brother also called Richard (Duke of York). Richard Duke of York was obviously second in line to the throne. Both needed to be “done away with” before Uncle Richard could inherit the throne.
The two boys simply disappeared and nobody who valued their lives dared to ask Richard what had become of them.
About 150 years later some children’s bones were discovered but technology was not then available to provide the conclusive evidence for who they were.
During the 1930’s the bones were examined again and were dated as far as was then possible to the late 1480’s.
Shakespeare portrayed Richard as the most evil of Kings.
Richard was killed in battle against Henry Tudor (Henry VII) ending the Wars of the Roses. He was the last English King to die on the Battlefield.


                                       BATTLES OF THE WARS OF THE ROSES



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